Enhanced Recovery Projects

The technical staff of Netherland Sewell has extensive experience with enhanced recovery projects worldwide, including evaluations of the largest nitrogen flood in the world, the two largest CO2 floods in the world, and the largest gas recycling project in the world. We perform thorough technical and commercial evaluations involving assessments of either actual performance or typical performance of analogous projects. If required, we can also review existing simulation models or construct specialized models. Each NSAI evaluation begins with our extensive experience and is backed by our sound professional judgment, industry knowledge, and technical skills.

Below is a list of selected projects to illustrate the broad breadth of our experience. To contact us regarding an Enhanced Recovery project, call either Rick Krenek in our Dallas office at 214-969-5401 or Lee George in our Houston office at 713-654-4950. We can also be contacted by email at for more information.

Steamfloods and Heavy Oil
  • Performed reserves and economic evaluations for the Hangingstone Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) demonstration project within the Athabasca oil sands area of northeastern Alberta, Canada. The bitumen response observed in the horizontal producer-injector well pairs was quantified and used to evaluate planned project expansions within the demonstration area and the larger Hangingstone West area.
  • Prepared a resource assessment of SAGD developments of the bitumen potential in the Ells River and Namur Fields. These fields are located within the Athabasca oil sands area of northeastern Alberta and are comprised of the Upper and Middle McMurray formations. Estimated the unrisked resources and prepared scoping economics for potential full-scale developments, which involved several hundred SAGD well pairs and the installation of central processing facilities, stream generation, infrastructure, and support systems.
  • In California, have performed evaluations of numerous fields under steam injection, including Arroyo Grande, Belridge, Cat Canyon, Coalinga, Coles Levee, Cymric, Kern Front, Kern River, Lost Hills, McKittrick, Midway Sunset, Mount Poso, Orcutt, Poso Creek, and Sespe. Have performed multiple or ongoing evaluations for many of these fields.
  • Prepared a scoping evaluation of a potential steamflood in the shallow section of Cerro Wenceslao Field in the San Jorge Basin of Argentina. An analogous Venezuelan project with a 40-acre inverted seven-spot pattern was used as a performance reference.
  • Estimated reserves and future revenue for Abarco, Cocorna, Girasol, Jazmin, Nare, Teca, Under River, and Velasquez Fields located in the Middle Magdelena Basin of Colombia on behalf of Saba Petroleum Company; Omimex de Colombia, Ltd.; and Mansarovar Energy Colombia, Ltd. These fields contain a combination of heavy oil under steamflood and intermediate gravity oil under primary and secondary recovery.
  • Conducted a study of the Cerro Negro heavy oil development project in the Orinoco area of Venezuela, which required a review of the performance to date of very long reach horizontal wells and estimation of future drilling.
  • Prepared a resource assessment of the heavy oil potential in the Amboloando Formation located onshore Madagascar in the Tsimiroro Production Sharing Contract 3104. Conducted a geologic evaluation of the mapped oil-in-place utilizing the 2-D seismic, log, core, and test information; estimated SAGD response based on analogous projects; and estimated unrisked resources. Scoping economics were prepared for a potential full-scale development involving several hundred SAGD well pairs and the installation of significant facilities, infrastructure, and support systems for this potential development.
Nitrogen Injection
  • Completed a geological, geophysical, petrophysical, and reservoir engineering evaluation of the offshore Cantarell Field located in the Bay of Campeche for Pemex Exploración y Producción, which involved creation of a compositional simulation model to evaluate enhanced recovery operations in this world class field. Initial simulation work resulted in recommendation and ultimate implementation of the world’s largest nitrogen injection pressure maintenance project that resulted in a peak producing rate of over 2 million barrels of oil per day. Ongoing advisory and simulation work is used for recommending future enhanced oil recovery projects.
  • Performed reserves and economic assessments, development plan review and preparation, and review and revision of simulation models for the planned floods in Bermúdez and Jujo-Tecominoacán Fields located in the Yucatan area of Mexico. A common nitrogen generation plant will supply both projects. The Bermúdez flood is expected to be operated at a nitrogen injection rate of 235 MMCF per day, with 65 MMCF per day of injection at Jujo-Tecominoacán.
  • Conducted a reserves study of the Yates Field in Texas, including the effect of the double displacement nitrogen injection process on enhanced oil recovery. This project has subsequently been converted to CO2 injection.
CO2 Floods
  • Completed a reserves analysis by category of enhanced oil recovery for the SACROC Unit, which is the largest CO2 flood in the world. Our evaluation used incremental oil versus injected CO2/water charts based on simulation model results and analogs. Also completed full field, pattern-by-pattern evaluation of proved, probable, and possible reserves and future net revenue for the giant SACROC CO2 flood in Scurry County, Texas.
  • Prepared significant reserves determination of Permian Basin properties for Altura Energy, Ltd. for divestiture purposes (reserves of approximately 3 billion barrels of oil equivalent), including a majority of the CO2 miscible floods in the Permian Basin along with several large gas plants. This included a study of the Denver Unit CO2 flood in West Texas which is the second largest CO2 flood in the world, and involved an assessment of recent infill drilling and pattern realignment projects along with plans to increase the CO2 slug size. Other projects included were Wasson ODC, Anton Irish, Slaughter Area, and Cedar Creek.
  • Conducted a study of the Salt Creek Field Unit CO2 flood in West Texas, with an assessment of the flood performance to date and the potential for expansion into new areas and formations. This CO2 flood in Kent County, Texas, was initiated in 1993 by Mobil.
  • Assessed the performance of the Anton Irish Clearfork CO2 flood in West Texas, identified potential expansion areas, and estimated the reserves and flowstreams for the proposed expansion project. Estimated CO2 injection and recycle requirements as well as fluid handling requirements. The project included estimating original oil-in-place by pattern and determining what additional patterns were analogous to the existing flood. A development plan was determined and capital costs were estimated for expansion of the injection and gathering system, compression, and required well work.
  • Conducted a study of the Dollarhide Devonian CO2 flood in West Texas to estimate reserves, flowstreams, and injection requirements. Evaluated the impact that fracture stimulations were having on reservoir performance and processing rate. Estimated reserves for CO2 recovery in the offset East Dollarhide Field.
  • Conducted a study of the low temperature, low pressure CO2 flood in North Ward Estes Field in West Texas. Determined reasons for potential miscibility problems as well as corrective actions; estimated proved, probable, and possible reserves for several expansion projects in the field; and determined the impact of restoring water injection to unsupported areas and infill drilling.
  • Estimated reserves, flowstreams, CO2 injection, and recycle requirements for several fields in the Levelland/Slaughter area of West Texas including the Levelland, Southeast Levelland, Central Levelland, Slaughter Estate, Mallet, Frazier, East RKM, West RKM, and Sundown Units.
  • Evaluated the reserves associated with a gravity stable CO2 flood in the Reinecke Field of West Texas. Evaluated expansion of the flood to downdip areas and enlargement of the crestal injection footprint.
  • Prepared an evaluation of the Adair San Andres Unit in West Texas. This evaluation included an assessment of the performance of the ongoing CO2 flood in the central portion of the field, expansion potential to the surrounding field areas, and the recent and planned re-entry horizontal drilling program.
  • Conducted a study of the Sims Sand Unit CO2 flood in Oklahoma involving the flood performance to date in this dipping reservoir along with plans for expansion into new areas and formations.
  • Evaluated the Postle CO2 flood in Oklahoma for potential acquisition, and subsequently for several annual reserves updates. Included assessments of planned infill drilling, workover, and CO2 flood expansion projects.
  • Performed a reserves study of the East Velma West Block Aldridge Sand Unit CO2 injection project in Oklahoma. The study incorporated seismic, petrophysical, and fluid property analysis along with reservoir simulation for history match and prediction. Provided forecasts of CO2 injection requirements, cycling, and oil under optimum development scenarios.
  • Conducted a study of the Wertz and Lost Soldier CO2 floods in Wyoming and the Rangely CO2 flood in Colorado for a potential acquisition.
  • Prepared an audit of the proved reserves for Greater Aneth Field, located in the Paradox Basin in Utah, which includes the Aneth, McElmo Creek, and Ratherford Units. A geologic evaluation was undertaken to determine the volumes of oil-in-place in all 3 units using well log information, and reserves were estimated for the McElmo Creek Unit which is a mature CO2 flood utilizing horizontal wells. Reserves were also evaluated for the planned CO2 expansion projects in the Aneth and Ratherford Units which are currently being waterflooded, along with horizontal infill drilling programs in all 3 units.
  • Performed routine surveillance, reserves evaluations, and tertiary recovery studies for a 5,000 barrel of oil per day (BOPD) waterflood and a 5,000 BOPD CO2 flood in the Paradox Basin of Utah.
  • Evaluated multiple fractured reservoirs located in Algeria to establish suitability for water and/or CO2 injection.
  • Performed a scoping review for potential CO2 miscible floods for several fields located in the Neuquen and Mendoza regions of Argentina. Four fields were identified as candidates: La Ventana, Barrancas, Medanito, and Chuido de la Salida. Scoping economics prepared for each potential project included reserves, production, and injection profiles; CO2 deliveries; capital and operating expense requirements; and net cash flows. This work also included an evaluation of potential CO2 source fields, including drilling and infrastructure requirements.
  • Prepared annual reserves reports for the ongoing Stampede and Raleigh CO2 floods in Mississippi, along with the planned West Yellow Creek and Chaparral CO2 floods also in Mississippi.
  • Prepared a scoping study of the CO2 flood potential in Denton Field in West Texas.
  • Prepared annual reserves reports for the ongoing Caprock CO2 floods in New Mexico, along with the planned expansion into the neighboring North Caprock Field.
  • Prepared annual reserves reports for the ongoing GAU, SMU, and WMU CO2 floods in Texas. The WMU flood is a unique vertical gravity stable CO2 flood with observed very high oil recoveries.
CO2 Source Fields
  • Performed a reserves and deliverability study of the McElmo Dome CO2 Field in Colorado. Incorporated seismic, petrophysical, and material balance history matching. Used reservoir simulation to match historical field performance and investigate future deliverability potential based on numerous scenarios that included surface facility options and additional drilling locations.
  • Estimated resources for several CO2 supply fields in Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico.
  • Prepared annual reserves reports for the potential development of Doak’s Creek Field in Mississippi as a CO2 source field.
Miscellaneous Enhanced Recovery
  • Conducted a study of a gas recycling project in the Arab D reservoir in Dukhan Field in Qatar, requiring modeling of the changing composition of the reservoir gas as liquids are stripped out and dry gas is reinjected. This is the largest gas recycling project in the world.
  • Performed a Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) study consisting of (1) a literature review; (2) creation of a white paper discussing the history of MEOR developments, current state of the technology with a particular focus on case studies, and MEOR applications in the U.S.; and (3) development of a database to progressively apply screening criteria to identify candidate fields for MEOR applications in key U.S. oil producing states.
  • Evaluated the Horse Creek Unit in North Dakota. While tertiary oil response to this long-time in-situ fireflood was good, the high expense levels associated with its operation became prohibitive due to the high injection compression requirement combined with the corrosion and disposal related costs of the produced flue gas. This led the operator to recently convert this unit back to a waterflood.
  • Conducted an arbitration in the Cedar Hills Field of North Dakota where high pressure air injection (HPAI) was considered, along with horizontal well development, as one of the tertiary recovery processes. The evaluation considered several active analog HPAI projects located in southwestern North Dakota and northwestern South Dakota.
  • Evaluated probabilistic reserves and miscible flood candidates for a 13-field complex located in the Ghadames and Illizi Basins of eastern Algeria on behalf of Anadarko Algeria Corporation. Included the HBNS, Qoubba, El Biar, and EKT Fields.
  • Prepared annual reserves reports for the ongoing Hiwannee gas recycling project in Mississippi. This high-yield gas-condensate reservoir is being developed with a natural gas recycling project supported by make-up purchases of pipeline natural gas.